lucianus: (Default)

I have, for some months, had a rotating series of military engravings by DeGheyn and Goltzius as the screensaver and desktop on my work computer. This has afforded me the chance to study the costume and weapons depicted in great detail and I've come to the conclusion that I need to re-examine any previous assumptions I might have had regarding military dress of the 1580s and 90s.

To this end I decided start with the most basic item of male dress in the period, the shirt. We have owned a copy of Patterns of fashion 4 : the cut and construction of linen shirts, smocks, neckwear, headwear and accessories for men and women c.1540-1660, conceived & illustrated by Janet Arnold. Quite Specific Media Group, c2008, pretty much since it was published but aside from browsing through it, I hadn't sat down to really study the garments. When I finally go around to taking a look, I found several shirts which were spot on in terms of dating (as much as one can actually date garments of this period) and of roughly similar dimensions. In addition there is a shirt of Gustavus Adolphus which can firmly dated to 1627. Although it is more recent, it has some similarities to shirts being worn by military men of 40 years earlier, especially in size and ornamentation of the collar and cuffs which could be worn simply turned over the doublet collar and sleeve cuffs. They are small enough though for a separate ruff and wrist ruffles to be pinned on over them.

Needless to say I have been reflecting quite a bit about Luke's shirt supply - how many did he own - where did he procure them from, etc., etc. When he was a boy and up though the time he went into service, his Mother, sisters and his Mother's maids would have made his shirts. While in Norreys' service he would probably have gotten some of his shirts as part of his livery with the remainder coming from home. Then later after he was on his own with his own men and military establishment he probably would hire a seamstress in London to make him the bulk of his shirts. His Mother still makes him some shirts and they are beautiful examples of the needlewoman's art. 

I decided to model the shirt I was going to make on numbers 10 and 12 from Patterns of Fashion. Both are from the last quarter of the 16th century and are of similar dimensions. The originals were quite long, shirts could be used for sleeping and receiving visitors in one's bedchamber and we have no way to know if these shirts solely served that purpose but had I made them to their actual length, I would be tripping over the bottoms. They also were wrapped about one's nether regions and did the office of jockey shirts of the day. I decided to shorten the shirt to my shins, still plenty long but not so much that I would fall on my face. They are both highly decorated and with reluctance I am dispensing with most if it, save for some bobbin lace edging around the collar, front opening, cuffs and hem. I feel like I want to get a good pattern worked out to fit me well before expending the time and effort on a highly ornamented shirt. I have cut out the fabric and will begin turning and sewing down all the edges. When that's done, I'll try to remember to post again with an update on my progress.

This entry is crossposted from Artifacts of a Life.

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Thursday j. June 1587.

This day up and feeling somewhat unwell from the tossing to and fro of the hoy, the which is most unlike me but I did perceive that my men were effected much the same as I, and right happy was I when we were come at last to Flushing, and as soon as we were docked, so Sir R.W. and I to Cousin Russell his lodgings and he greatly distressed from news new come from Ostend, that for sure the Prince of Parma was sat down to besiege the town, and from Greenfelt in Sluys, that a company of the garrison there did go out and found themselves amongst some xxxx. Companies of Spaniards, the which they did dispatch some of the foremost of, then they espied on the river between Dam and Gant boats laden with siege pieces to the number of some xxij. and shot, the which a great quantity of they did throw into the river and did sink ij. or iij. of the boats; so after some more talk, Sir R.W. and some men, both from the garrison here and from those the which were come with us, were decided to go to Ostend, then to our lodgings, then I out to try to buy some tobacco but only found a bit and it not very good and so to some supper and writing of this journal and so to bed, I laying with Sir R.W.

Luke and his men have arrived in Flushing with the troops Sir Roger Williams has brought from Bergen-op-Zoom. They go immediately to call upon Sir William Russell, the governor, and receive the news that Parma is most definitely on the move and, so it seems making to besiege Ostend. Greenfelt is Arnolt de Grunevelt the military governor of Sluys.

Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 3: April-December 1587 (1929), pp. 71-85, especially a letter from Grunevelt to Walsingham (5/31/1587) and one from Russell to Walsingham (6/1/1587).
lucianus: (Luke 2)
Before starting entries for my KnoWoPerWriMo project for this fall I wanted to give just a bit of background on the events.

Those of you who read Luke's journal last year will know that he is a professional soldier, a gentleman of a company of horse, in the service of Queen Elizabeth's army in France and the Netherlands. He also is a part time intelligencer for Sir Francis Walsingham so there may be letters off and on reporting in on current events.

You can find a fairly detailed persona history at these LiveJournal entires:

http://lucianus.livejournal.com/83490.html
http://lucianus.livejournal.com/85927.html
http://lucianus.livejournal.com/90407.html
http://lucianus.livejournal.com/90759.html
http://lucianus.livejournal.com/90982.html

For this installment of Luke's life we find ourselves with the English army in the Netherlands in 1586. Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester is in command (for good and bad) and his army has just taken the town of Duisburg by assault. As a gentleman volunteer, Luke has a fair bit of freedom to do what he pleases. He is in Captain Roger William's company and acts as an adjutant for him. He also was in Sir John Norris' service for many years and while he no longer is his man, he attends upon him as well. His distant cousin Sir John Russell is with the army as well and he has his confidence.

As always, I welcome questions and comments. I have made these entries f-locked to preserve my rights of first publication, however I welcome new readers. Simply post a comment and I will add new readers.
lucianus: (Luke 2)
So its that time of year again, the Known World Persona Writing Month. I'm actually starting my month two months early because I have an interesting period in Luke's life to cover, Fall 1586 - Winter 1587.

This time I will be posting these entries as friends locked, so if you'd like to see them please drop me a note. I have a fairly limited friend's list at present so even if you've friended me, I might not have friended you back, therefore it would behoove you to check my profile and see.
lucianus: (Luke 2)
My submission and documentation is all done for the A&S 50 display at Coronation. Regular readers of my journal will remember the KnoWoPerWriMo posts in November, December and part of January. Well I've taken and worked them up into a pamphlet, set in a period type face, to look like a news book of the time. The background notes and citations are in the back as endnotes and I have a notebook with a few pages of documentation. All this will be taken by the intrepid [personal profile] hugh_mannity down for the display.

A good job done but it reminds me just how much I want to enlarge this work.

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Tuesday 4. January

This day we did learn more of the enemies taking of our position on the counterscarp and I was told by a gentleman who was witness to this action that the enemy did tear up the defenses we had built and that they had mounted a culverin and did shoot this down our trench slaying several of our men, and at this I must ask myself why our master of the entrenchments who doth fancy himself such a fine engineer and expert in the building of fortifications, why consented he to allow such entrenchments to be so poorly built and that are too shallow and that are long straight lines that doth allow just such a thing as happened last night that pieces could be shot down them slaying many men with one ball; this day in the camp and I feeling quite unwell that I kept to my quarters.



The account of the retaking of the counterscarp is found in Valdory. A culverin is a type of cannon the fired about a 5” iron ball. Luke’s diatribe about the entrenchments is directed at Sir Edmund Yorke, the amateur siege engineer with whom the English forces were saddled.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Monday 3. January

This day all the day in camp and I did spend my time to write of this journal for the past two days; I took my dinner with several other in St. John’s quarters and had a pottage and some cider and some singing and so home rather early and to bed I feeling not so well; in the night the enemy made a sally out and drove our troops from the counterscarp and captured several for ransom, but I know not who was captured.



Valdory attests to the nighttime sally.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.
lucianus: (Luke 2)
Sunday 2. January

This day dawned very cold and foggy and after a cold breakfast of some bread and cheese off went we and pushing much closer towards Amiens, St. John and my troop did split our forces to better discover in those places what rumors and reports we might have as to Parma his train but we could learn no new things and finally in the afternoon we did start back towards Rouen and riding fast with swords drawn we did arrive back to our quarters about 8 of the clock at night, all very tired and cold from our efforts and very hungry and I slept like the dead until well past dawn.



See yesterday’s notes for more information.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.
lucianus: (Luke 2)
Saturday 1. January

This day were many shots exchanged by the artillery; my troop and that of St. John, all armed heavily and on the report that Parma and his train were nigh unto Amiens, were sent out towards Neufchatel where we found none of them, nor outriders neither, but all rumor of their coming; upon the road met we a troop of the enemy and running at them did kill two and so did scatter the remainder and I do know that I wounded another with a very good cut on his bridle arm for he bleedeth much and quickly drew off and had we not had a our task before us I would have followed and taken him for my prisoner; after this chance meeting with the enemy we were especially on our guard and expecting them back with more of their fellows but they came not and we continued on our way finally sleeping the night in a large barn the which serveth well to keep us and our mounts from the frozen fog.



Today's post is mostly made up but influenced by typical activities. The Duke of Parma's army was a great big threatening thing and any commander who had any smarts would have cavalry troops out keeping an eye on things. Small troops of horse were tailor made for checking up on stuff.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaisse de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.
lucianus: (Luke 2)
Friday 31. December

This day attending upon Sir R. W. and rode we out to several places to examine the defenses and speak with the captains, but how sad it was to see so many of the men so ill clad with only the garments they had when we were first come into France, if those, and their doublets ragged, their hosen torn and their shoon full of holes but for all these woes, the men were cheerful and keen to be at the enemy; towards evening we returned to our quarters and I supping with Sir R. W. and several others and what a pleasant evening spent with cider and many songs and I sang some the which were quite cried up and so home to my bed and in such a fine humor.



Valdory has very little to say today so I have sent Luke on a walkabout with Sir Roger Williams. Coningsby in his journal in December mentions the poor state of the men’s clothing.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Thursday 30. December

This day in camp and sleeping long due to our lack of sleep yesternight; around supper comes St. John his man with an invitation to come and eat with he and several others in his quarters and we had a good pottage of sausages and quite merry with much cider and playing at cards and remarkable good cheer of the season in spite of the rumble of the cannons and rattle of harkabush shots into the night and it being late I did lay with St. John.



Valdory doesn’t have much to say about today’s activities other than more artillery bombardment.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Wednesday 29. December

This day the weather was unseasonably warm and sunny, such a pleasant change from that which has been our constant companion for the past month, we can only pray that it might continue a bit longer; the cannons played off and on through the afternoon and after supper we assembled in the trenches for another try upon the counterscarp but in spite of our prompt arrival we did wait and until about 3 of the clock in the morning and in the meantime I and some of my fellows slept a while, then we made our way up to the frontmost trench and running very quick we fought our way onto the counterscarp and overcame the defenders who ran back to fellows, those who drank not of the cup of eternal sleep, and so we set up gabions to hold this place and strengthened ourselves with more powder and shot and sat us down to watch for the rest of the night and finally just before dawn St. John his troop did relieve us and so back went we to our quarters very weary and cold from this nights exertions.

Today’s attack is attested to in Valdory. It actually takes place over the night of the 29-30th, the 3am is 3am on the 30th.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.


lucianus: (Luke 2)
Tuesday 28. December

All the day our cannons did play hotly on the enemy then towards evening we made ready to give an assault upon the barricado hard by Harrico with some 400 hagabushers, and so on at a quick march firing all the way and cutting at the defenders with halberds but to no avail and we were repulsed and driven back to our trenches with heavy hakabush fire from the defenders.



Today’s attack is attested to in Valdory.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Monday 27. December

This day back again to the trenches after dinner but in spite of a warming and bright sunshine all was mud and we watching with swords and halberds and pistols in our belts until after dark when came the order to advance and climbing out of the trench we did advance firing as we went and so made our way all the way to the counterscarp where we were repulsed by much hagabush fire from the enemy and I am ashamed to say retreated much faster than we had advanced.


Today's account of the attack comes from Valdory.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.


lucianus: (Luke 2)
Sunday 26. December

This day there was much cannon fire and hargabush shots to and fro but the enemy for all his great show hit not his marks, as is so often the way with braggarts; reports have come that the Prince of Parma hath marched as far as La Fère but hath stayed his progress to wait for two regiments of Spaniards; this day we in the camp and towards supper several of us to celebrate the start of Christmastide ate of a great cheese and had with it much cider and drank much of my tobacco and so to sleep rather late but as happy as one might be in this place.



Yesterday was the last day of Coningsby's journal for whatever reason it just breaks off on the 25th. I am picking up with Guillaume de Valdory's account of the siege as my main source and I will be supplementing it with summaries of the state papers foreign series, not ideal but certainly good sources nevertheless. Valdory was a captain from the enemy troops. His account was published at the time (unlike Coningsby's) and then reprinted in the 19th century when so many documents briefly saw the light of day.

Great Britain. Public Record Office. List and analysis of state papers, foreign series: Elizabeth I. Preserved in the Public Record Office. London, H.M. Stationery Off., 1964- , Vol. III, June 1591-April 1592, p. 364-365.

Valdory, G. Relation du siège de Rouen en 1591, par Valdory, précédée d'une notice bibliographique et historique par E. Gosselin, in Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, Société rouennaise de bibliophiles, No. 14, 1871.

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Saturday 25. December

This day before dawn we rose and reentered the trenches where we had been before and St. John his men so very happy to come in from there where they had watched all the night through and it snowing some of the time and at about 11 of the clock came the enemy who would have their trenches again and with great spite they fell upon us and killed two of my troop with sword and halberd and did  drive us out and with much hagabush fire did chase us back to our own trenches and Baskerville seeing our distress commanded his company to second us and so we did sally out again but the rest of our fellows followed us not and so with a number of losses fell we back again in a short time being not so strong to hold out against the enemy but in retreating I regret that we did leave the corpses of several of our men behind; so watching in our own trenches until nightfall when my Lord and some of his gentlemen came for their watch and we very weary and cold finally back to our quarter and some supper and our beds.



Coingsby attests to the loss of the enemy trenches, Sir Thomas Baskerville's sally and their loss again.

Coningsby, Thomas, Jornall of Cheife Thinges Happened in Our Jorney from Deape the 13. of Auguste, Untyll, MS.- Harl. 288. f. 253279, p. 65. Camden Miscellany by Camden Society (Great Britain), Royal Historical Society (Great Britain), published by Camden Society, 1847 Item notes: v.1 (1847)

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Friday 24. December

This day my Lord and his gentlemen did go into the trenches with us and with a great force we did drive the enemy from his place and I and several others climbing out of the trench and running up to the counterscape amongst many hagagbush shots we did gain their line and did give five or six of them that opposed us a draft of eternal sleep and in this trench we found their cloaks and swords and especially their powder all the which we sent back to our fellows and so we sat to watch and hold this place and all very cold and miserable; at about six of the clock St. John his troop did relieve us and so we back to the French his quarter for some supper but little to be had owning to the continued bad weather and so to sleep a bit on straw in a barn there.



Coingsby attests to the taking of the counterscarp.

Coningsby, Thomas, Jornall of Cheife Thinges Happened in Our Jorney from Deape the 13. of Auguste, Untyll, MS.- Harl. 288. f. 253279, p. 64-65. Camden Miscellany by Camden Society (Great Britain), Royal Historical Society (Great Britain), published by Camden Society, 1847 Item notes: v.1 (1847)

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Thursday 23. December

This day came word that we would move our quarters closer to St. Katherines where we have been watching these several weeks but I think that it maketh little sense for the horse also to shift our dwelling place as we have made paddocks and stables for our mounts; I attending upon Sir R. W. this day and he and I and several others to visit Sir E. Y. who was hurt in the head three or four days past with splinters from the palisado and he much better but still bandaged and likely to remain so for some more days; I supped with Sir R. W. and had some good beef and cider and later we played at cards and I won one ecu of him.

Coningsby reports on the possible move of the quarters. According to him Sir Edmund York was wounded rather severely so it would make sense that Sir Roger Williams might pay him a visit to see how he was doing.

Coningsby, Thomas, Jornall of Cheife Thinges Happened in Our Jorney from Deape the 13. of Auguste, Untyll, MS.- Harl. 288. f. 253279, p. 64. Camden Miscellany by Camden Society (Great Britain), Royal Historical Society (Great Britain), published by Camden Society, 1847 Item notes: v.1 (1847)


lucianus: (Luke 2)
Wednesday 22. December

This day continued powerful cold with snow in the forenoon and we in the trenches hard by St. Katherines awatching but no sally came from the enemy and I think they were warm in their houses while we shivered in the cold and I thank God that I have a good mandillion for there are they which have none; the Baron Biron was made a knight of the Holy Ghost this day in Dernetail.

Coningsby remarks on the continued cold weather as well as the fact that Baron Biron, Marshal Biron’s son was installed as a member of the order of the Saint Esprit.

Coningsby, Thomas, Jornall of Cheife Thinges Happened in Our Jorney from Deape the 13. of Auguste, Untyll, MS.- Harl. 288. f. 253279, p. 64. Camden Miscellany by Camden Society (Great Britain), Royal Historical Society (Great Britain), published by Camden Society, 1847 Item notes: v.1 (1847)

lucianus: (Luke 2)
Tuesday 21. December

This day there was a large sally made by the enemy on the village below St. Katherine and my troop being in the neighborhood with Sir R. W. spurred on our horses not wanting to miss the fight and so we swept in on the right flank and cut down several ranks of calivermen killing upwards to 20 of them and scattering the rest and I did chase two of them and cut them down but did find myself cut off from my fellows and surrounded by four or five of their horse who did cut at me but I did twist away but one of them with great persistence kept after me and when he drew close enough he put his pistol up to my helmet and shot me but just then I did move my head and the bullet cut across my face, he then did try to pull me off my horse but I spurred on my mount some more and hied myself back to our troops who were then were being pressed but just then the King, from the hill seeing our distress, came agalloping down like thunder and fell upon the enemy and did drive them back and gathering in our scattered troops we all pressed them further so they fell back to their gate; my Lord was today hurt by cannon shot and the gentleman beside him slain; after our exertions we back to our quarter and I had a good dish of mutton and hot, the which was so welcomed as we had been in the saddle all the day without cloaks and it snowing and continued so very cold.



Coningsby attests to the sally and has a very colorful description of King Henri’s entry to the battle, “and seing that sally, came down like god Mars his thunderbolt.”

Coningsby, Thomas, Jornall of Cheife Thinges Happened in Our Jorney from Deape the 13. of Auguste, Untyll, MS.- Harl. 288. f. 253279, p. 63-64. Camden Miscellany by Camden Society (Great Britain), Royal Historical Society (Great Britain), published by Camden Society, 1847 Item notes: v.1 (1847)

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